Игры с ячейками с деньгами
A common headache is figuring out how slowly retirees should spend their nest eggs. Economists have long said that the rational thing to do is to buy an annuity.
For decades, economists have been trying to figure out why.
A number игры выплачивающие реальные деньги theories have been advanced - people might like to leave some money for their children, or they might worry about medical expenses late in life.
Poterba and his colleagues have also pointed out that Social Security is already like an annuity, promising constant payments for life. Every year, the group withdraws a predetermined amount and divides it among the remaining survivors. You might get a bonus игры с ячейками с деньгами year, for instance, because Frank and Denise died. Retirees often object to annuities because they worry about not living long enough to make the money back.
This is the nightmare scenario: If someone dies игры с ячейками с деньгами day after she buys an annuity, the insurance company walks away with the cash scot-free.
Annuities are expensive to administer, and so как в игре наша рыбалка сделать много денег через арт мани payouts are rather low. The costs stem in part from paying the insurance company to shoulder игры с ячейками с деньгами the risk. To guarantee it can make good on all its annuity contracts, the insurer has to set aside a lot of money in reserve - just in case people live longer than expected, or in case the market crashes.
A tontine does away with all that overhead, so more money is available to the retirees. The downside is that retirees would see their payouts fluctuate depending on the various times other people in the tontine group died. Compared to an annuity, a tontine abandons certain payouts for much higher returns. Instead of setting aside so much money to make sure all the pensions are fully funded, why not let the pension payouts vary.
If people are dying faster than anticipated, redistribute their shares so that the remaining pensioners get slightly larger checks. If people are dying slower than anticipated, shrink those pension checks a bit. Such игры с ячейками с деньгами system would be cheaper to operate and would always, by definition, be fully funded.
The funny thing is that some retirement systems already carry out a version of that process. As Milevsky documents in his book, there is "tontine thinking" игры с ячейками с деньгами in various national pension schemes, and even in a product offered by TIAA-CREF in the United States.
These plans adjust payments according to mortality. Tontines are a bit like the dinosaurs of the retirement world. They perished in a dramatic extinction event, but their DNA lives on in many of the financial products we see today.
Tontines were some of the first popular ways to save for retirement, and historians say their demise left the door open for corporate pensions, and Social Security, which continued the tontine promise of a guaranteed retirement.
He envisions tontines competing against annuities and longevity insurance and all the other products available to people hoping to smooth out the last stretch of тестирование игр на андроид за деньги lives.
Give me some choice at retirement. ChevronRightThe downfall of the tontine was equally dramatic. Story continues below advertisementSome academics even argue that with a few new upgrades, a modern tontine would be particularly suited to soothing the frustrations of 21st-century игры с ячейками с деньгами. Story continues below advertisementA few decades later, though, tontines became widespread in Europe.
AdvertisementBack then, if you paid the king 100 pounds, he might promise to pay it all back to you with interest over the course of a dozen years - that would be a bond.
Story continues below advertisementIt was игры с ячейками с деньгами ultimate lottery. AdvertisementKings loved tontines because they could get away with paying out a lot less since игры с ячейками с деньгами counted on being alive - and collecting the big bucks - at the end of the scheme. Story continues below advertisementMilevsky, who recently published a history of the tontine, emphasizes that it was not originally envisioned as a retirement scheme.
Story continues below advertisementThis retirement tontine came at a critical moment, says economic historian Richard Sutch. AdvertisementBut the new urban factory jobs were completely different. AdvertisementIn 1906, New York state launched a major investigation into the insurance market that resulted in the banning of tontines. Considered as insurance, it was actuarially sound.
Considered as a gamble, it was казино с реальным выводом денег на карту онлайн fair bet in as much as there was no percentage for the house beyond a charge to cover administrative costs.]